11. Errors of Measurement:
The difference between the measured value and true value is called the error of measurement. These errors are of two types:
(a) Compensating Errors: are the errors which tend to balance or cancel out in the long run are called ‘compensating errors’ or ‘chance errors’ or ‘random errors’.
(b) Biased Errors: are the errors which tend to occur in the same direction and have cumulative in effect, are called ‘biased errors’ or ‘cumulative errors’. Such errors are arised from faulty instruments or personal intentions.