18. Types of Charts: (a) Simple Bar Chart, (b) Multiple Bar Chart, (c) Component Bar Chart, (d) Percentage Component Bar Chart, and (e) Pie Chart. Unit.no. 1


Types of Charts:
(a)    Simple Bar Chart,
(b)   Multiple Bar Chart,
(c)    Component Bar Chart,
(d)   Percentage Component Bar Chart, and
(e)    Pie Chart. 
(a)   Simple Bar Chart:
1.    Simple bar chart consists of vertical or horizontal bars of equal width.
2.    The length of the bars is taken proportionately to the magnitude of the values represented.  The width of the bars has no significance.
3.    Vertical bars are used to represent quantitative data or chronological data.  Whereas, the horizontal bars are represented for qualitative data or geographical data.
4.    If the data do not relate to time, then they should be arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude.
Exports of Pakistan (in US $ million)
Year
Exports
1948
138
1951
406
1961
378
1971
683
1981
2958
1991
6168
2001
9202
2005
14410
(b)   Multiple Bar Chart:
1.    Multiple bar chart is an extension of simple bar chart.
2.    Grouped bars are used to represent related sets of data. For example, imports and exports of a country together are shown in multiple bar chart.
3.    Each bar in a group is shaded or coloured differently for the sake of distinction.
Years
Imports
Exports
Rs. (billion)
Rs. (billion)
1982-83
68.15
34.44
1983-84
76.71
37.33
1984-85
89.78
37.98
1985-86
90.95
49.59
1986-87
92.43
63.35
1987-88
111.38
78.44
(c)    Component Bar Chart:
1.      This chart consists of bars which are sub-divided into two or more parts.
2.      The length of the bars is proportional to the totals.
3.      The component bars are shaded or coloured differently.
Current and Development Expenditure – Pakistan (All figures in Rs. Billion)
Years
Current
Expenditure
Development
Expenditure
Total
Expenditure
1988-89
153
48
201
1989-90
166
56
222
1990-91
196
65
261
1991-92
230
91
321
1992-93
272
76
348
1993-94
294
71
365
1994-95
346
82
428
(d)   Percentage Component Bar Chart:
1.    Component bar charts may also be drawn on percentage basis by expressing the components as percentages of their respective totals.
2.    All the bars are of equal length showing the 100%.  These bars are sub-divided into component bars in proportion to the percentages of their components.
Areas Under Crop Production (1985-90)
(‘000 hectors)
Year
Wheat
Rice
Others
Total
1985-86
7403
1863
1926
11192
1986-87
7706
2066
1906
11678
1987-88
7308
1963
1612
10883
1988-89
7730
2042
1966
11738
1989-90
7759
2107
1970
11836
Percentage Areas Under Production
Year
Wheat
Rice
Others
Total
1985-8666.2%16.6%17.2%100%
1986-8766.017.716.3100
1987-8867.218.014.8100
1988-8965.917.416.7100
1989-9065.617.816.6100
(e)   Pie Chart:
1.    Pie chart is used to compare the relation between the whole and its components.
2.    The difference between the component bar chart and pie chart is that in case of component bar chart the length of the bars are used while in case of a pie chart the area of the sector of a circle is used.
3.    In pie chart, the circle is drawn with radii proportional to the square root of the quantities to be represented because the area of a circle is given by 2pr2.
4.    The sectors are coloured and shaded differently.
5.    To construct a pie chart, we draw a circle with some suitable radius (square root of the total).  The angles are calculated for each sector as follows:
Angles for each sector =          Component Part           ×          360o
                                                   Total

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