1.History of Statistics:
1. The word ‘statistics’ has been derived from the origin Latin word ‘status’ or the Italian word ‘statista’.
2. In 1749, Gottfried Achenwall during one of his lectures at a German university, used the word ‘statistik’ to mean the political science of several countries.
3. Baron J.F. von Bielfeld defined statistics as the science that teaches what is the political arrangement of all the modern states of the known world.
4. In 1839-39, the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society in an issue defined statistics as the ascertaining and bringing together those facts which are calculated to illustrate the conditions and prospects of the society.
5. The subject matter of statistics has its origin in ancient times.
6. Moses and David numbered their people and made fairly accurate counts of population.
7. A census of population was held in Egypt as early as 3050 B.C. in connection with the construction of pyramid.
8. A land survey was conducted by Rameses II at about 1400 B.C. to redistribute the land among the inhabitants of Egypt.
9. Similar census of population and wealth were conducted by Chinese, Roman, Greek and Arab rulers.
10. Famous statisticians and mathematicians in the history are John Graunt, Casper Neuman, James G. Cardano (1501-36), Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705), Thomas Bayes, Pascal, Fermat, De Moivre, Laplace (1749-1827), Gauss (1777-1855), Karl Pearson, William S. Gosset (1876-1937), R.A. Fisher (1890-1962), J. Neyman (1894-1983) and E.S. Pearson (1895-1981).